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I.M. Back to Breast

MODEL OF I.M. TURN TECHNIQUE FROM BACKSTROKE TO BREASTSTROKE

NAMES OF PERIODS & PHASES:Swim in period
1. Swimming before turn
2. Approaching phaseTurning period
3. Rotation phase
4. Pushing phaseSwim out period
5. Gliding phase
6. Long pull phase
7. Second gliding phase
8. Arms recovery & legs bending phase
9. First kick & pullout phase
10. Swimming after turnAIM OF MOVEMENTS:
Create high turn speed during change of swimming style!

 

Limiting positions beginning: at the start of the last backstroke cycle before turn
ending: at the end of the first breaststroke cycle after turn

General cognitive assignments:
Avoid unnecessary movements during all phases
Prepare for proper approach to the wall before turn
Keep relaxed during rotation, gliding and kicking
Increase impulsive forces for push-off, kicking and pullout actions using elasticity of muscles
Decrease resistance at all times, during push-off, gliding and recovery
Ensure correct timing of fixing joints for transfer of power during push-off, kicks and pullout
Use inertial momentum during rotation
Co-ordinate good breathing actions with movements
Inhale before roll-over and begin breathing after turning actions are over
Realise aims of movements in each phase but also prepare for the movements in following phase

PHASES:

1. SWIMMING BEFORE TURN

AIM of movements try to continue with same swimming speed!

Limiting positions beginning: start of the last full backstroke cycle before turn
ending: end of the last full backstroke cycle before turn

Parameters:
Forward speed swimming backstroke: 1.40 – 1.60 (m/sec)
(Higher speed before turn is precondition for better turning actions)

Requirements for self control:
Co-ordinate right moment on the back for the hand to touch the wall

2. APPROACHING PHASE

AIM of movements Try to continue with same swimming speed !

Limiting positions beginning: at the end of the last full backstroke cycle before turn
ending: when the hand touches the wall

Parameters:
Forward speed before touch: 1.40 – 1.60 (m/sec)
(This parameter shows efficiency of timing last stroke before rotation. It is normal that speed of that stroke is same as backstroke swimming speed)

Requirements for self control:
Make the hand touch on the wall exactly at the end of the arm recovery
Put the hand on the wall on the opposite shoulder side, with inclined but not yet vertical shoulder position at the touch

3. ROTATION PHASE

AIM of movements Try to minimise the duration of rotation !

Limiting positions beginning: when the hand touches the wall
ending: when the feet touch the wall

Parameters:
Duration of rotation : 1.0 – 0.78 (sec)
(Indicate effect of turning )
Forward speed of hips during rotation : 0.50 – 0.70 (m/sec)
(Shows how quick hips moving during rotation forward, without stop)

Requirements for self control:
Continue movement of hips towards the wall during rotation with high speed
Avoid unnecessary movements of arms during rotation
Make good grouping of legs during rotation, like flip turn
Make rotation diagonally, on the side
Place the feet correctly and simultaneously on the wall
Time feet to touch the wall with extended arms position ready for push

4. PUSHING PHASE

AIM of movements Try to increase pushing power and speed !

Limiting positions beginning: when the feet touch the wall
ending: when the feet leave the wall

Parameters:
Forward speed during push : 1.60 – 2.10 (m/sec)
(Mean speed of hips during pushing indicate effect of pushing action. Mean speed should be analysed as beginning from zero and ending as max speed when feet leaves the wall : mean speed 1.5 m/sec means that max speed is about 3.0 m/sec and mean speed 2.0
Push off duration : 0.30 – 0.22 (sec)
(Push off duration indicate power of pushing : then shorter then better, but if swimmer is waiting before pushing, this duration considered as extra unnecessary time)

Requirements for self control:
Take streamlined position of body and arms for push, hide head between the arms
Avoid twisting from hips during push and push body to breast position
Keep back rigid and fixed during push
Keep horizontal direction of push, relatively deep, under wave
Begin push-off immediately after feet touch and make duration of push very short

5. GLIDING PHASE

AIM of movements Try to maintain gliding speed !

Limiting positions beginning: when the feet leave the wall
ending: at the start of the first arm pull

Parameters:
Forward speed of body during first glide : 2.0 – 2.2 (m/sec)
(Higher glide speed indicates good gliding quality also right, early timing of first long arms pull)
Duration of the first glide: 1.20 – 0.75 (sec)
(If glide speed is high, then duration may be longer, if low then shorter)

Requirements for self control:
Head , body and legs position must be very streamlined during glide
Make glide deeper for longer underwater actions
Hold good horizontal body , head and arms position during glide
Avoid long glide duration to maintain high speed

6. LONG PULL PHASE

AIM of movements Try to increase forward speed !

Limiting positions beginning: at the start of first arm pull
ending: at the end of first arm pull

Parameters:
Forward speed during first long pull : 1.80 – 2.00 (m/sec)
(This parameter indicate directly efficiency of that arm pull)

Requirements for self control:
Timing of the beginning of long pull must be as soon as you feel able to increase speed by pulling
Make long pull with one dolphin kick!
The action of the long pull must be wide, with good acceleration, high elbow position
Keep body position flat during long pull

7. SECOND GLIDING PHASE

AIM of movements Try to avoid sharp loss of speed !

Limiting positions beginning: at the end of the long pull stroke
ending: at the beginning of arms recovery

Parameters:
Forward speed during second glide : 1.55- 1.75 (m/sec)
(Too high speed indicate early start of recovery actions, too low shows resistance of position or too long duration of that glide)

Requirements for self control:
Keep body position streamlined

8. ARM RECOVERY & LEG BENDING PHASE

AIM of movements Try to reduce loss of forward speed !

Limiting positions beginning: at the start of arms recovery
ending: at the start of underwater leg kick

Parameters:
Forward speed during recovery actions : 0.70 – 0.90 (m/sec)
(High value shows quality of recovery movements by arms and legs, but it depends also from level of speed before recovery)

Requirements for self control:
During recovery bring arms close to body, with small resistance
Bring legs to the high position for kick, bending knees, feet high, less from hips, knees widely separated
Timing of beginning of bending legs must be late, only after arms are near the shoulder line

9. FIRST KICK & PULLOUT PHASE

AIM of movements Try to increase forward speed again !

Limiting positions beginning: at the start of the first underwater leg kick
ending: at the start of the next leg kick

Parameters:
Forward speed during first pullout stroke cycle : 1.1 – 1.3 (m/sec)
(It must be higher then the next swimming speed , it is allowed only once pull under water after turn, according rules, so use that option)

Requirements for self control:
Timing of the beginning of pullout stroke, must be in time , at the optimum depth of the body, not too deep
Make pullout leg kick impulsive and make the armstroke to rise head up to the surface in time, at the widest part of arm pull
Body must be kept in a high position on the surface at the end of pullout stroke cycle

10. SWIMMING AFTER TURN

AIM of movements Try to continue with same speed as before turn !

Limiting positions beginning: at the start of the first stroke cycle after turn
ending: at the start of the next stroke cycle

Parameters:
Speed of the swimming after turn : 1.25 – 1.40 (m/sec)
(High breaststroke speed indicate good swimming technique after turn movements and must be compared with backstroke swimming speed before turn)

Requirements for self control:
Continue your normal rhythm of swimming with swimming speed according to your individual tactical plan of the race